i need strength to finish my assignments. it's only one month from now, my Montessori course will be done. Oh God help me!

Question 1: Write an essay on 'The Essence of Education' (1000 - 2000 words)

Montessori is a method of education that is based on hands on learning, collaborative play, and self directed activity. In Montessori classrooms children make creative choices in their learning while the classroom and the teacher offer age appropriate activities to guide the process. Children work in groups and individually to discover people, places and knowledge of the world.

Montessori classrooms are beautifully crafted environments designed to meet the needs of children in a specific age range. Dr. Maria Montessori discovered that experiential learning in this type of classroom led to a deeper understanding of language, mathematics, science, music, social interactions, and much more.

Each material in a Montessori classroom supports some aspect of a child’s development, creating a match between the child’s natural interests and the available activities. Because of this match children can learn through their own experience and at their own pace. They can respond at any moment to the natural curiosities that exist in all humans, and build a solid foundation for life-long learning.

Dr. Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was an Italian physician and anthropologist who became fascinated with how children develop socially, intellectually, physically, and spiritually. Through her careful observations of children all over the world, she discovered universal patterns of development which are found in all children regardless of their culture.

Dr. Montessori created this educational approach based upon these natural patterns and grounded in a profound respect for all life. Over the past one hundred years children throughout the world have benefited from this educational approach that supports, nurtures, and protects natural development.

The Montessori educational philosophy believes that the educational method, to be effective, must support and address the nature of the child. The nature of the child is not a theoretical construct, but based upon Montessori's detailed observation of the child.

Based upon her observations Montessori came to understand the inner nature of the child:

-The child is a dynamic, curious person that has an inner need to know the the world. The Montessori classroom has a multitude of fascinating materials from which to select.


-The child comes to know the world through the senses.Consequently, experiences that develop and refine the sense are fundamental to knowing the world. Further, because knowing the world comes through the sense activities must concrete and have "manipulatives" (i.e. toy or game-like). The curriculum area of sensorial in the Montessori classroom aids the child in the development and refinement of the senses and the many manipulative materials in the classroom allows the child to explore and learn.

-The child auto-educated. Essentially, the child constructs knowledge through physically manipulating the environment. The physical manipulation, or handling of the environment, allows the child to construct mental images. Mental images lay the foundation for later abstractions. The Montessori teacher does not teach, but rather provides experiences for the child to construct mental images.

-The child learns that which is of personal interest. It is important, therefore, for the child to have freedom to select activities that are highly interesting. The Montessori classroom contains hundreds of colorful, exciting materials that are of interest to children.

-The child repeats activities until they are fully mastered. The Montessori class schedule has long, uninterrupted times in the morning and in the afternoon for the child to concentrate on activities.


-The child is orderly and focused. The Montessori classroom is calm, respectful and peaceful. This atmosphere meets the child's inner need for an atmosphere that supports concentration. The Montessori classroom is orderly and encourages the child to maintain an orderly environment.

Based upon the inner nature of the child the role of the teacher is defined:The teacher observes the child to determine what is of interest to the child.

-The teacher observes the child to determine what is of interest to the child.

-The teacher prepares the environment to meet the observed needs of the child.

Based upon the nature of the child and the observed needs of the child the environment is prepared to serve the child.

Question 4: What do you know about energy and repetition in the Montessori environment? (400 words)

Children have their own energy. This energy is specially shown when the child works at a spontaneous activity developing his own independence and learning through the prepared environment. The energy help the child to repeat again and again actions that are specially suited to his state of growth. We are as adult work in a very different way from children. We like to accomplished goals and we stop when the goal is achieved. That's not the way how children work. They have the internal goals which make children interesting to repeat again and again what they are doing. Children will repeat and activity until the inner goal is accomplished. The unconscious urge to repeat helps the child to coordinate a movement or acquire some ability.

Question 3: What is meant by the word horme and how does it show itself in the child?

The word 'horme' comes from Greek. Horme is an unconscious will power the urge the child on to do what he needs to do to aid his divine urge which guides the child and his efforts to their goal.
Horme belongs to life in general, to what might be called the Divine urge, the source of evolution. This vital force for his growth stimulates the child to perform many actions and, if he is permitted to grow normally, without being hindered, it shows itself in what we call the "joy of life". The child is driven under the force of horme to perfect himself. He will perform actions that help him to make progress in his mental and physical growth and the development of his powers. The child is always enthusiastic, always happy.

Question 2: Explain the meaning of the word mneme and its relationship with the child.

Mneme is is a supreme type of memory, which unconsciously stores impressions, which then become part of the child’s personality. So basically, the relationship of these terms is .. From birth to 3 the child's mind is in a period of mental construction. Dr. Montessori referred to this period as the period of 'Spiritual Embryo'.

The child uses a special ability for soaking up knowledge, information and everything about him from the environment unconsciously from birth to 3 years and consciously from the age of 3 - 6 years. Dr. Montessori called this ability the ‘Absorbent Mind‘. The growth and psychic of the child’s development are guided by the ‘Absorbent Mind’, which is driven towards development by an unconscious will power and a vital force that urges the child to do what he needs to do to develop called ‘Horme‘. This development works in conjunction with ‘Sensitive Period‘.

The 'mneme' will form the child's characteristics and keep them alive throughout his life. During the period the 'mneme' cannot be altered, they can be suppressed, but not eradicated, as they will occupy the subconscious mind of life. The 'meneme' exits only during childhood,especially during sensitive period.

Question 1: Why did Dr. Montessori give an illustration of the work of tiny coral? (100 - 200 words)

Dr Montessori was discussing the child's placein society when she used the coral to illustrate her point. In her opinion, each person in society, no matter how small or seemingly insignificant, had an important role to play. Every being contributes to the construction of the world we live in. The coral was used as an analogy: it appears very small, a simple, basic life from that appears to do nothing earth-shattering during its existence on earth, but its existence is vital as it makes its own contributions to the world. Like humans, it requires special conditions in the environment to survive. Like a child, it is small, unassuming and regarded as insignificant. However, corals work to produce hard sustances that built up over time on top of each other. This results in the formation of land (island, continents, etc), wich becomes the habitat of a multitude of other life forms. Dr Montessori claimed that humans function in the same way. Every being has a cosmic task, which is to contribute to society through their work, which will all add up to produce harmony and order in the universe.

Question 6: Why is the prepared environment important? (400 words)

Maria Montessori believed that the years from three to six are the most critical for nurturing a child's curiosity and for laying the foundation for all future development. Children of this age possess what Dr. Montessori called the absorbent mind, the ability to absorb all aspects of one's culture and environment without effort or fatigue. Children form themselves by taking what they need from their surrounding environment, whether the environment is rich or poor in opportunities. The prepared environment of a Montessori classroom is designed to aid and honor the natural, universal developmental patterns of children. The materials are child-sized, and have the child's natural interests in mind.

Montessori classroom materials have a real educational purpose inherent within them; the child makes his own discoveries about his world through his work with these materials.

In order for self-directed learning to take place, the whole learning environment - classroom, materials, and social setting/atmosphere - must be supportive of the child. The teacher provides the necessary resources, including opportunities for children to function in a safe and positive environment. Together, the teacher and child form a relationship based on trust and respect that fosters self-confidence and a willingness to try new things.

The Montessori classroom is not merely a place for individual learning. It is a vibrant community of children, where the child learns to interact socially in a variety of ways. The three-year age range enables older children to teach the younger and learn much themselves from the experience while the younger children are inspired to more advanced work through observing the older ones. With such a variety of levels in the classroom, each child can work at his or her own pace, unhindered by competition and encouraged by co-operation. Children attend daily and for a three-year cycle.

The goal of the prepared environment in the Montessori 3-6 classroom is to make the children feel comfortable and safe. It also teaches them that a prepared and organized environment saves time and helps them learn. The prepared environment also frees children to focus during periods of learning by keeping the environment free of clutter and distractions.

Question 5: What was Dr. Montessori's main aim for each individual? (150 words)

The aim of the the Montessori Method of education is to help the child become a self sufficient and an independent master of himself. All activities in the House of children are directed towards this goal. In fact the very aim of life itself is this independence and education is a means towards this goal.

Question 4: What kind of teaching materials did Dr. Montessori use? (150 words)

Maria Montessori use a didactic material. In her opinion children will learn naturally by they experience with they environment. So we as an adult and teacher must provide a proper material for children to use as they play and learn to provide an atmosphere for learning. These material are suited to a child abilities and interest, are set up by a teacher-observer who intervenes only when the child needed. The typical classroom in a Montessori school consist of readily available games and toys such as counting beads, geometric puzzle, etc, child-sized furniture, plants and animals that are care for by the children. Children will learn and develop naturally through the material and proper environment for them, and the teacher staying as much as possible in the background, do observation and help only when is needed.

Question 3: What were the main changes seen in the children in the Casa de Bambini?

Casa dei Bambini or Children's House that created by Maria Montessori focused on teaching the students way to develop their own skill at a pace they set, which was the principle Montessori called "spontaneous self-development". Children teach themselves, they learn naturally with the environment, they have ability to absorb knowledge from their surroundings. The house and all the material were design to provide a good environment for children to live and learn. The teacher was the "keeper' of the environment, while the children got on with their activities the teacher doing observation with their scientific power.
Every piece of equipment, every exercise, every method Montessori developed was based on what she observed children to do "naturally," by themselves, unassisted by adults.

Question 2: Who were the two people whose writing and work most influenced Maria Montessori? Explain why this was the case. (200 words)

It was Itard and Seguin who most influence Maria Montessori!

Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (1774 - 1838) was a French Physician. He was also an educator of deaf children. Itard is well known for his work of "Victor of Aveyron", a youth boy that could not speak and lacked almost all of the skill of everyday life, living alone and grown up outside of human society. However his effort with Victor ended up with disappointing result. The boy found uncooperative and unable to learn most things. This led him to postulate the existence of developmental periods in normal human growth. He formed the hypothesis that, during these "sensitive periods," a child must experience stimulation to develop normally, or grow up, forever lacking the skills and intellectual concepts not developed at the stage when nature expects them to be readily absorbed.

Edouard Seguin (1812-1880) was a physician who worked with mentally handicapped children in France and America, who was also a student of Itard and also the educator of "Aveyron boy".
It was Itard who persuaded Seguen to dedicated to study the causes as well as the training of mentally retarded. He created the first school especially for handicapped in France, and as well as he moved to America he continued establishing his work and open handicapped school in America. He published many books about handicapped and idiot and backward children, and he become became the first president of the "Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feeble minded Persons"

Their works with the mentally handicapped was a major inspiration Maria Montessori. Although Itard's efforts to teach the wild boy were barely successful, he followed a methodical approach in designing the process, arguing that all education would benefit from the use of careful observation and experimentation. This idea became the of cornerstone Montessori method.

As well as from Seguin, Montessori drew further confirmation of Itard's ideas, along with a far more specific and organized system for applying it to the everyday education of children with disabilities. Working primarily with the blind, Seguin developed a methodical approach to breaking skills down into small steps, and was highly successful with a carefully developed collection of hands-on educational materials.

Question 1: Write a study of lifeand work of Maria Montessori.

Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870 into an educated middle-class family near Ancona, Italy. As she followed the normal track through elementary school, she discovered her own talent for academics and, in time, developed a passionate interest in mathematics. Unusually, she continued schooling after age twelve; even more unusual, she chose to enter a technical school. In the spring of 1886 she graduated with high marks and a final grade of 137 out of 150.

In a time when the traditional careers for women were limited to teaching, child rearing, and the nunnery, Maria--who for now refused to even consider teaching as a career---enrolled in the University of Rome in the fall of 1890. Possibly due to the suggestions of Pope Leo XIII himself, she was allowed to study physics, mathematics and natural sciences in order to become a medical doctor. Despite the expected prejudices from the male students, she persisted and presented her thesis in the spring of 1896 on "A Clinical Contribution to the Study of Delusions of Persecution (Paranoia)." The review board gave her 105 out of a possible 110 points, a brilliant showing, and she became Italy's first female doctor.

After Maria Montessori was awarded her doctorate, she continued to do research work at the psychiatric clinic at the University of Rome, finally joining the staff of the clinic in 1897. It was here, in the asylums for the insane and intellectually deficient, that she encountered a number of "idiot children" kept like prisoners side-by-side with the adults. At the time, sickness of the mind and sickness of the body were believed to go hand-in-hand; thus, in pursuit of a way to treat these "deficient" children, Montessori looked for a way to educate them.

Her search for information led her to the work of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard with the "wild boy of Aveyron" who had survived from infancy outside any human contact, as well as the Itard's student Edouard Seguin, who argued for the division of a child's growth "into a sequence of stages of development from physical movement to intellect." These researchers gave her the necessary background on teaching young children through the aid of physical movements and objects.

During 1899 Montessori lectured across Italy and became a well-known authority on "the nervous diseases of children." In the spring of 1900 she was appointed director of a new Orthophrenic School in Rome to train teachers in "the care and education of deficient children." Here she developed a set of physical teaching materials based on Itard's and Seguin's work--"teaching toys" specifically designed to challenge and educate. To the surprise of many, several of her eight-year-old "defectives" were soon able to pass the state examinations in reading and writing with scores as good or better than "normal" children.

Montessori immediately began to wonder: if her "defectives" could do so well using these methods, how much better could "normal" children learn with them? By 1901 she had left the School, abandoning her medical career for good, and pursued a study of how "normal" children could be taught.

Montessori approached the education of children scientifically, pursuing research and observation before she developed her methods. She studied anthropology, pedagogy, experimental psychology, educational philosophy, and observed the rigid, disciplined elementary schools that were common throughout Italy.

In 1906, she accepted an invitation to set up a school in a slum neighborhood of Rome in order to put her theories into practice. Her instructions were to occupy the children of the families while their parents worked during the day, and she was given no money or resources to do so. Still, she obtained some tables, toys, colored pencils and paper through donations, recruited women from the neighborhood as teachers, and brought in a number of her special "teaching toys." The school officially opened her school in January of 1907. This became Montessori's first Casa dei Bambini, or Children's Home.

Unlike the retarded children she had worked with in the past, these children required no coaxing to use the materials properly. They loved the challenge and dynamics of her teaching materials to the exclusion of the other toys available to them. Everyone moved about freely, but discipline was enforced when children were aggressive or incorrigible. The only punishment was inactivity--the first "timeout chair"--and it was remarkably effective.

A second school was opened on April 7, 1907 in another slum; others quickly followed.

In the summer of 1909, at the urging of others, she wrote a book about her methods and ideas which was eventually translated into English as The Montessori Method. In 1910 the first Montessori society was founded in Rome; by 1911 her methods had spread as far as Australia and Argentina. By 1913 nearly one hundred Montessori schools existed throughout the United States. Montessori now devoted herself full-time to promoting and advancing her methods.

Near the end of 1913, she was invited by publisher Sam McClure to visit the United States and give talks about her methods. It was during this time she met with Helen Keller, who referred to herself as "a product of the Montessori method." In 1915 she returned under the invitation of the National Education Association to demonstrate her school at the International Exposition near San Francisco.

However, her popularity was already declining, partly due to her insistence that only she could train teachers in her method and that only she should control the manufacture and distribution of her teaching materials. In 1914 William Heard Kilpatrick wrote a book harshly denouncing her methods as out-of-date an ineffective. Many American teachers felt her methods took too much control of the classroom away from them. By 1916 Montessori was rarely discussed in American education.

In the decades to come, Montessori continued to work and lecture throughout Europe, but political events constantly interrupted. In 1934 the Fascist government closed the Montessori schools in Italy, and the Third Reich ended her influence within the German empire until after World War II. After spending many years in India and establishing a new home in the Netherlands, a liberated Italy welcomed her back in 1949.

For her work, Montessori was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Peace in 1949, 1950, and 1951. However, she was now in her eighth decade of life, and on May 6, 1952 she died of natural causes in the Netherlands.

Question 1: Give a description of the techniques of studying a lesson book.

Question 1: Write a short account of what you hope to gain from the course. Include a brief history of yourself.

I am a mom with one 3 year old son. Me and my family have been living in Malaysia for 9 months. We are from Indonesian. I graduated from Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia, majoring Philosophy in 1998. First time i know about Montessori is when i read a book "Teaching Montessori in the home (the preschool years)". I just falling in love with the concept of Maria Montessori teaching method.

After my graduation i decided to looking forward to start to become a preschool teacher, and then i teach preschool for 7 years with 3 different school but not any of them with a Montessori way. But i really enjoy because i realise that this is my world: teaching little children. Beside, i still keep in my heart that one day i will learn and teach with Montessori knowledge.

Now this is the time i learn and explore about Maria Montessori and Montessori Method for this course. I love to know who is Maria Montessori more deeply as a person and as a founder of Montessori Method, what and how the Montessori Method working in the life of children, how i become a Montessori's teacher. Then i will ready to teach Montessori's way in a school and also teaching my son.

I'm looking forward for me to complete my knowledge about Montessori and to full fill my desire about Montessori teaching.

HW Lesson 4

Why did Dr. Montessori give an illustration of the work of the tiny coral?

A coral is a tiny, simple, little creatures, basic life form in the world. Its very tiny but its existence is very important to the world, had an important role to play to create a land (island, continent, etc). These extract calcium carbonate from the water and, tiny as they are, they build up new land and they also protect mainlands from the sea.

Dr. Montessori use the "tiny coral" as an analogy and illustration to her opinion. In her opinion, each person in society have a contribute to built a society through they work, which will all add up to produce harmony and order in the universe.

Explain the meaning of the world 'mneme' and its relationship with the child.

Mneme is is a supreme type of memory, which unconsciously stores impressions, which then become part of the child’s personality. So basically, the relationship of these terms is .. From birth to 3 the child's mind is in a period of mental construction. Dr. Montessori referred to this period as the period of 'Spiritual Embryo'.

The child uses a special ability for soaking up knowledge, information and everything about him from the environment unconsciously from birth to 3 years and consciously from the age of 3 - 6 years. Dr. Montessori called this ability the ‘Absorbent Mind‘. The growth and psychic of the child’s development are guided by the ‘Absorbent Mind’, which is driven towards development by an unconscious will power and a vital force that urges the child to do what he needs to do to develop called ‘Horme‘. This development works in conjunction with ‘Sensitive Period‘.

The 'mneme' will form the child's characteristics and keep them alive throughout his life. During the period the 'mneme' cannot be altered, they can be suppressed, but not eradicated, as they will occupy the subconscious mind of life. The 'meneme' exits only during childhood,especially during sensitive period.

What is meant by the word 'horme' and how does it show itself in the child?

The word 'horme' comes from Greek. Horme is an unconscious will power the urge the child on to do what he needs to do to aid his divine urge which guides the child and his efforts to their goal.
Horme belongs to life in general, to what might be called the Divine urge, the source of evolution. This vital force for his growth stimulates the child to perform many actions and, if he is permitted to grow normally, without being hindered, it shows itself in what we call the "joy of life". The child is driven under the force of horme to perfect himself. He will perform actions that help him to make progress in his mental and physical growth and the development of his powers. The child is always enthusiastic, always happy.

What do you know about energy and repetition in the Montessori environment?

Children have their own energy. This energy is specially shown when the child works at a spontaneous activity developing his own independence and learning through the prepared environment. The energy help the child to repeat again and again actions that are specially suited to his state of growth. We are as adult work in a very different way from children. We like to accomplished goals and we stop when the goal is achieved. That's not the way how children work. They have the internal goals which make children interesting to repeat again and again what they are doing. Children will repeat and activity until the inner goal is accomplished. The unconscious urge to repeat helps the child to coordinate a movement or acquire some ability.


No 3: Horme

Question: What is meant by the word 'horme' and how does it show itself in the child? (200 words)

Answer:
The word 'horme' come from the name of one of the Greek goddess personifying energetic activity and effort.

No 2: Mneme

The leading force of the great intelligent that is pus sing all matters living and non living to what's its final goals.

In small children this drive or push is on the unconscious level like the drive to work.

Horne is the force that powers the spontaneous work of the children.

HOMEWORK!!!

Homework for this Saturday!

1. Why did Dr. Montessori give an illustration of the work of the tiny coral polyp? (100-200 words)
2. Explain the meaning of the word 'mneme' and its relationship to the child.
3. What is meant by the word 'horme' and how does it show itself in the child? (200 words) You will find the information in your text book, The Absorbent Mind.
4.What do you know about energy and repetition in the Montessori environment? (400 words)

Question: Why is the prepared environment so important? (400 words)

Answer:

Maria Montessori believed that the years from three to six are the most critical for nurturing a child's curiosity and for laying the foundation for all future development. Children of this age possess what Dr. Montessori called the absorbent mind, the ability to absorb all aspects of one's culture and environment without effort or fatigue. Children form themselves by taking what they need from their surrounding environment, whether the environment is rich or poor in opportunities. The prepared environment of a Montessori classroom is designed to aid and honor the natural, universal developmental patterns of children. The materials are child-sized, and have the child's natural interests in mind.

Montessori classroom materials have a real educational purpose inherent within them; the child makes his own discoveries about his world through his work with these materials.

In order for self-directed learning to take place, the whole learning environment - classroom, materials, and social setting/atmosphere - must be supportive of the child. The teacher provides the necessary resources, including opportunities for children to function in a safe and positive environment. Together, the teacher and child form a relationship based on trust and respect that fosters self-confidence and a willingness to try new things.

The Montessori classroom is not merely a place for individual learning. It is a vibrant community of children, where the child learns to interact socially in a variety of ways. The three-year age range enables older children to teach the younger and learn much themselves from the experience while the younger children are inspired to more advanced work through observing the older ones. With such a variety of levels in the classroom, each child can work at his or her own pace, unhindered by competition and encouraged by co-operation. Children attend daily and for a three-year cycle.

The goal of the prepared environment in the Montessori 3-6 classroom is to make the children feel comfortable and safe. It also teaches them that a prepared and organized environment saves time and helps them learn. The prepared environment also frees children to focus during periods of learning by keeping the environment free of clutter and distractions.

[link]

Question: Write a study of the life and work of Maria Montessori. (1500 words)

Answer:
Maria Montessori was born in Chiaravalle (Ancona), Italy to Alessandro Montessori, and Renilde Stoppani. She was the first woman to graduate from the University of Rome La sapienza Medical School. She was a member of the University's Psychiatric Clinic and became intrigued with trying to educate the "mentally retarded", a developmental disability, and the "ineducable" in Rome . In 1898, she gave a lecture at the Educational Congress in Torino about the training of the disabled. The Italian Minister of Education was in attendance, and was impressed by her arguments sufficiently to appoint her the same year as director of the Scuola Ortofrenica, an institution devoted to the care and education of the mentally retarded. She accepted, in order to put her theories to proof. Her first notable success was to have several of her 8 year old students apply to take the State examinations for reading and writing. The "defective" children not only passed, but had above-average scores, an achievement described as "the first Montessori miracle." Because of her success with these children, she was asked to start a school for children in a housing project in Rome, which opened on January 6, 1907 and which she called "Casa dei Bambini" or Children's House. Children's House was a children care center in an apartment building in the poor neighborhood of Rome. She was focused on teaching the students ways to develop their own skills at a pace they set, which was a principle Montessori called "spontaneous self-development". The success of this school sparked the opening of many more, and a worldwide interest in Montessori's methods of education. In the year 1939, the Theosophical Society of India extended an invitation asking Maria Montessori to visit India. She accepted the invitation and reached India the very same year accompanied by her only son, Mario Montessori Sr.This heralded the beginning of her special relationship with India. She made Adyar, Chennai her home. Moreover the war forced her to extend her stay in India. She along with the help of her son, Mario Montessori conducted sixteen batches of courses called the Indian Montessori Training Course. These courses laid a strong foundation for the Montessori Movement in India. In 1949 when she left for Holland she appointed joosten, Albert Marx as her personal representative, and assigned him the responsibility of conducting the Indian Montessori Training Courses. Joosten along with Swamy SR, another disciple of Dr. Maria Montessori, continued the good work and ensured that the Montessori Movement in India was on a sound footing. Maria Montessori died in The Netherland in 1952, after a lifetime devoted to the study of child development. Her early work centered on women’s rights and social reform and evolved to encompass a totally innovative approach to education. Her success in Italy led to international recognition, and for over 40 years she traveled all over the world, lecturing, writing and establishing training programs. In later years, ‘Educate for Peace’ became a guiding principle, which underpinned her work. After the1907establishment of Montessori's first school in Rome, by 1913 there was an intense interest in her method in North America, which later waned. (Nancy Mcormic Rambusch revived the method in America by establishing the American Montessori Society in 1960). Montessori was exiled by Mussolini mostly because she refused to compromise her principles and make the children into soldiers. She moved to Spain and lived there until 1936 when the Spanish Civil War broke out. She then moved to The Netherlands until 1939. During a teachers conference in India she was interned by the authorities and lived there for the duration of the war. Montessori lived out the remainder of her life in The Netherlands, which now hosts the headquarters of the AMI, or Association Montessori Internationale. She died in Noorjwijk aan Zee. Her son Mario headed the AMI until his death in 1987.

[link]
[link]
[link]

Older Posts